Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 原材料价格上涨 低端LED灯企被“锁喉”？.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
The US has overtaken India as the leading user of anti-dumping and other trade defence cases, with China and its steel sector the biggest target, according to research.
We will make continued progress in building a Healthy China.
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
The value of goods that crossed international borders last year fell 13.8 per cent in dollar terms — the first contraction since 2009 — according to the Netherlands Bureau of Economic Policy Analysis’s World Trade Monitor. Much of the slump was due to a slowdown in China and other emerging economies.
伦敦商学院的MBA课程位列欧洲第一，与美国哥伦比亚商学院(Columbia Business School)合办的EMBA课程位列第三，管理硕士课程首次参与排名就跻身前10名。参与管理硕士课程排名是伦敦商学院夺得欧洲榜首的关键因素。
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My grandmother’s favorite poem was Invictus by William Ernest Henley. My father hung a copy of it on our kitchen wall, so I grew up reading it every day: “I am the master of my fate; I am the captain of my soul.” I think the best advice I can give anyone – especially someone just starting out in business – is to embrace your role as master of your own fate. Recognize opportunities when they arise and get comfortable saying “Yes.”
Major American retailers including Wal-Mart, Target (TGT, Fortune 500), and Kmart all opened their stores on Thanksgiving to get a jump on the holiday gift shopping season. Wal-Mart even went as far as to open its stores two hours earlier this year than it did last. But Costco (COST, Fortune 500) refused to join the trend of "Black Friday creep" and kept its doors shut. Chief executive Craig Jelinek thought giving his workers a day off was more important than increasing his company's bottom line.
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And despite exports having fallen 7.3 per cent during the same period.
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The study is available online.